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Don Easterbrook
#1
From HERE

Measurements of oxygen isotopes in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores allow reconstruction of ancient temperatures back 800,000 years and measurements of radiocarbon and Beryllium-10 indicate the intensity of cosmic rays entering the Earth’s atmosphere.

Sunspots are a reflection of the strength of the sun’s magnetic field, which acts as shield for cosmic rays approaching the Earth. When the strength of the sun’s magnetic field is reduced, more cosmic rays enter the atmosphere. In every case, when sunspot numbers are low, the Earth’s climate is cool, and whenever sunspot numbers are high, the Earth’s climate is warm.

The intensity of incoming cosmic rays determines the rate of production of beryllium-10 and radiocarbon. Radio‒carbon is taken in by plants and other life forms and preserved for thousands of years where it gradually decays. Age measurements based on the amount of remaining 14C can be compared with independent calendar years, allowing determination of 14C production rates. Measurement of production rates 14C can be used to determine the intensity of cosmic rays reaching the Earth in the past.

Beryllium-10 is produced in the upper atmosphere by collision of cosmic particles with oxygen. The higher the incidence of cosmic rays, the more 10Be is produced. Beryllium-10 falls out of the atmosphere with snow and is incorp‒orated in glacial ice. Thus, measurement of the amount of 10Be in ice cores can be used to determine the intensity of cosmic rays in the past. High amounts of 10Be in ice cores means high levels of cosmic rays in the atmosphere then.

Sunspot numbers, indicating solar magnetic strength, and 10Be and/or radiocarbon production rates, indicating cosmic ray intensity, were examined for every period of cooling or warming for which data are available. In every case examined in this study, whenever sunspot numbers were low and/or 10Be and/or radiocarbon levels were high, the Earth’s climate was cold. In every case when sunspot numbers were high and/or 10Be and/or radiocarbon levels were low, the Earth’s climate was warm . Thus, what these data show is that fluctuations of the strength of the sun’s magnetic field is the principal control of the Earth’s climate, including the origin of the Ice Ages.
“I would rather have questions that can’t be answered than answers that can’t be questioned.” Richard P. Feynman.


“The further society drifts from truth, the more it will hate those who speak it.”
George Orwell

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#2
From HERE

One of the problems with condensation (clouds) on ionic particles is that they need to be big enough for condensation to occur. A lot of ions created need to be enlarged to sizes large enough to promote clouds. Svensmark showed that this indeed does happen.

The astonishing (at least to me) about this process is that EVERY CLIMATE CHANGE I could find in the last 800,000 years coincided with increased 10Be production, even extremely abrupt climate changes in the Ice Age. There were no exceptions. The data are in my new book on Amazon.com
“I would rather have questions that can’t be answered than answers that can’t be questioned.” Richard P. Feynman.


“The further society drifts from truth, the more it will hate those who speak it.”
George Orwell

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